Category Archives: Equity

Do Incarcerated Youth Have Equal Access to Education? Let’s Look at the Data.

Although we regularly assess student learning and evaluate the effectiveness of teachers in traditional schools, there is almost no hard data on the quality of education in the schools that serve students held in juvenile justice facilities. These facilities tend to only collect data focused on safety and security. What kind of education do these students receive?

Based on the first year of available data from the U.S. Civil Rights Data Collection, we conducted a national analysis to answer some simple questions:

  1. How many youth are enrolled in juvenile justice schools across the U.S.?
  2. To what degree do they have access to math and science courses (the only courses on which we have data)?
  3. How often do they enroll in these courses?

What we encountered on the way – before even answering the latter two questions – was troubling.

At the start of our analysis, we needed to set up a rudimentary fact base. How many juvenile justice schools are there in each state, and how many kids are enrolled in each? Basic questions, it would seem. Thankfully, the U.S. Department of Education collects public school enrollment nationally. In the 2013-14 data set, the first one made available, they decided to include juvenile justice schools in their definition of “public.” After adding up the number of students in juvenile justice schools for each state, we found that the number was suspiciously low. For example, Arkansas reported only six students enrolled in one juvenile justice school – in the entire state. South Carolina reported no juvenile justice schools at all.

We found it hard to believe that only six students were incarcerated in all of Arkansas, so we compared the enrollment data to another data set – the number of incarcerated youth in each state for the year 2013. If all was well in the world of data quality and educational access, we would expect the data sets to somewhat align, meaning the number of enrolled youth would account for about 100% of incarcerated youth. That, in turn, would give us a fairly accurate picture of educational opportunity for incarcerated youth in each state.

However, we found that in the majority of states, the enrollment numbers of juvenile justice schools didn’t remotely match up with the number of incarcerated youth for the same time frame. In only 18 states did the number of enrolled students somewhat account for the number of youth in placement (that is account for 70% – 130% of youth). In the other states, that alignment ranged from 0% (South Carolina) to 940% (Delaware). 940% means that way, way more youth were reported enrolled in juvenile justice schools than actually incarcerated. What seems mathematically impossible is more likely the result of schools being mislabeled as serving incarcerated youth or schools reporting cumulative enrollment (how many kids enrolled in a year) instead of snapshot enrollment (how many kids were attending school on one day).

Without accurate data, it’s hard to make state-by-state comparisons about access to education in these facilities. Good data matters. Without it, we don’t know whether the thousands of kids who are reported as incarcerated, but not enrolled in a school, are actually getting an education. They deserve better.

Check out our other findings in the full slide deck, Measuring Educational Opportunity in Juvenile Justice Schools.

Alexander Brand was an intern at Bellwether in the spring of 2018.

Superhuman and Running on Empty: What Equal Pay Day Means to Teachers

messy stack of teacher supplies, including books, chalk, and applesToday, April 10, may be Equal Pay Day, but teacher pay has been making headlines for weeks. We’re seeing massive, organized walkouts across the country as teachers stand up for increased education funding. But there’s more to the story: teacher pay is a gendered issue. If we want to truly examine teacher compensation, we can’t do so without acknowledging the demographic makeup of the nation’s educator workforce, 76 percent of which are women.

Teaching is the most common occupation for women in this country, and not only are their earnings predictably lower than male teachers (8.7 percent lower, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research), but the field as a whole is compensated worse than other similarly educated professions. In fact, in the United States, teachers overall earn less than 60 percent of the wages of similarly educated peers.

Even within the teacher workforce, we see disparities: in early childhood settings — which employ a higher percentage of women, especially women of color — teachers earn less than they do in high school roles. Finally, when speaking broadly about equal pay, women of color are particularly marginalized: research from the American Association of University Women reveals that black women must work until August 7 for their earnings to catch up to men’s earnings from the previous year, and Latinas until November 1.

I asked two Kentucky teachers, Annabeth Edens, a fourth grade teacher in Georgetown, and Vilma Godoy, a high school teacher in Shelbyville, what they thought about the state’s teacher walkouts. Both women told me how much they love teaching and their students. They want to show up for the choir concerts and after-school tutoring — being there for their kids matters to them. But they also want to be respected and treated as professionals, and paid fairly for their work. Godoy explains: “This work is rewarding, yes, but it is difficult and demanding and outsiders truly have no idea the amount of hours that go into it, after school and on weekends. It feels like we have to be superhuman. Superwomen.”

Edens spoke to me on the way to one of her side jobs at a children’s boutique — it was a Friday morning, a shift she wouldn’t typically work, except she was hoping to pick up some extra hours over spring break.

She’s not alone in putting in extra hours. Says Edens: “In order to teach in Kentucky, you need to get your master’s; you have to start it within five years of teaching. It’s not uncommon for teachers to have three or more degrees…they’re taking on student loans to cover it, not because they necessarily want to, but because the government mandates it.”

Godoy, a product of Los Angeles public schools, was drawn to teaching as an opportunity to provide her students with the foundational love of learning her own teachers instilled in her. She argues: “Women are taken for granted. It’s expected that women are just willing to sacrifice. In any other field, with the level of degrees required, we would be getting paid so much more than what we are.”

When teachers like Edens and Godoy advocate for fair salaries, they’re arguably setting the stage for other predominantly female fields to follow suit. Can teacher walkouts pave the way toward progress for women in all sectors?

Pay Gaps in Education are Bad. Pensions Make Them Worse.

Education, as a field, isn’t supposed to have pay gaps. In the vast majority of school districts, salaries are determined by uniform salary schedules based on educators’ years of experience and educational attainment. This policy should, at least in theory, guard against gender- or race-based salary inequities.

Sadly, pay gaps persist. In a new report, we studied Illinois’ educator data and found that women, regardless of experience level, earn markedly lower salaries than their male peers. As shown in the graph below, gender-based salary gaps begin in educators’ first year and increase until an educator reaches her 30th year of service.

As we show in the paper, these gaps also persist into retirement. For example, a teacher first becomes eligible for a pension after working for ten years in Illinois. At that point in their career, women’s average salary is $8,000 less than their male colleagues. This salary gap translates in a $2,100 disparity in annual pension benefits. And that pension inequity continues to grow each year. After working 30 years, a common retirement age, male educators get an average pension that is $8,000 more valuable than the average pension women receive. That is $8,000 less per year. After 10 years in retirement, men will have amassed an additional $80,000 in retirement benefits.

In short, salary schedules fail to sufficiently guard the education field against large and persistent gaps in salary and retirement benefits.

To learn more about gender-and race-based inequities in salaries and pensions, read the full report, here.

Three Potential Risks of New Federal Weighted Student Funding Pilot

The education field widely acknowledges that some students may need additional support to thrive in school and beyond because of challenging life circumstances, specific learning needs, or other factors. And, in fact, the structure of federal funding programs like Title I and the design of many state school funding formulas recognize this principle and provide targeted support and differentiated funding based on specific student needs.

However, this idea is rarely reflected at the local district and school level, where budgets are more commonly based on inputs like staffing ratios and salary schedules that are not directly linked to the needs of students served in a given school. But a new federal pilot program authorized under the Every Student Succeeds Act, 2015, (ESSA) seeks to change that by incentivizing more districts to redesign their school funding methods around students.

School districts’ applications to participate in ESSA’s weighted student funding pilot program are due to Secretary DeVos today. And while these funding models could theoretically increase equity, the devil is in the details. The Department, advocates, and ed-watchers should be on the lookout for both the potential rewards and the risks of these district proposals.

Under a weighted student funding model (WSF), districts fund schools in whole or in part through a formula that considers the total number of students served in each school and specific student characteristics linked to higher costs. These types of formulas assign greater funding weight to students with such characteristics, sending more money to the schools serving them.

Well-designed WSF systems can counter the unfortunate result of common funding distribution methods currently in practice in many districts, where input-driven funding methods often result in higher funding levels in schools that serve fewer high-need students. As such, in theory, encouraging more districts to implement funding allocations that shift resources toward student need should be a boon to equity — a potentially big “reward.”

To date, districts that have implemented WSF, such as Boston, Denver, and Indianapolis, have limited these allocation methodologies to state and local funds. Federal funds have been left out of the mix primarily because federal regulatory and reporting requirements make it complicated and burdensome to mingle federal, state, and local resources in a single, unified WSF formula.

This ESSA pilot could change that by waiving many federal requirements and permitting approved districts to combine funds and allocate them to schools under locally determined WSF formulas. In exchange, these formulas must provide “substantially more” funding to low-income students and English language learners compared with other students. Continue reading

International Women’s Day at Bellwether

In honor of yesterday’s International Women’s Day, here is work we’ve done over the years to uplift women’s accomplishments and ensure equity: