Everyone loves a good rivalry. The Hatfields vs. the McCoys. Aaron Burr vs. Alexander Hamilton. Taylor Swift vs. Katy Perry.
As evaluators, we’re partial to Tupac vs. Biggie. For the better part of three decades, these rappers from opposing coasts have remained in the public eye, recently reemerging with the release of a television series about their unsolved murders. Interestingly, their conflict about artistry and record labels mirrors a conflict within evaluation’s own ranks around a controversial question:
Can advocacy be evaluated?
On the East Coast, Harvard’s Julia Coffman acknowledges that evaluating advocacy can be challenging, thanks to the unique, difficult-to-measure goals that often accompany these efforts. Nevertheless, she contends, these challenges can be mitigated by the use of structured tools. By using a logic model to map activities, strategies, and outcomes, advocates can understand their efforts more deeply, make adjustments when needed, and, overall, reflect upon the advocacy process. This logic model, she claims, can then become the basis of an evaluation, and data collected on the model’s components can be used to evaluate whether the advocacy is effectively achieving its intended impact.
In contrast to the East Coast’s structured take, West Coast academics refer to advocacy as an “elusive craft.” In the Stanford Social Innovation Review, Steven Teles and Mark Schmitt note the ambiguous pace, trajectory, and impact related to the work of changing hearts and minds. Advocacy, they claim, isn’t a linear engagement, and it can’t be pinned down. Logic models, they claim, are “at best, loose guides,” and can even hold advocates back from adapting to the constantly changing landscape of their work. Instead of evaluating an organization’s success in achieving a planned course of action, Teles and Schmitt argue that advocates themselves should be evaluated on their ability to strategize and respond to fluctuating conditions.
Unsurprisingly, the “East Coast” couldn’t stand for this disrespect when the “West Coast” published their work. In the comment section of Teles and Schmitt’s article, the “East Coast” Coffman throws down that “the essay does not cite the wealth of existing work on this topic,” clearly referring to her own work. Teles and Schmitt push back, implying that existing evaluation tools are too complex and inaccessible and “somewhat limited in their acknowledgement of politics.” Them’s fighting words: the rivalry was born.
As that rivalry has festered, organizations in the education sector have been building their advocacy efforts, and their need for evidence about impact is a practical necessity, not an academic exercise. Advocacy organizations have limited resources and rely on funders interested in evidence-based results. Organizations also want data to fuel their own momentum toward achieving large-scale impact, so they need to understand which approaches work best, and why.
A case in point: In 2015, The Collaborative for Student Success, a national nonprofit committed to high standards for all students, approached Bellwether with a hunch that the teacher advocates in their Teacher Champions fellowship were making a difference, but the Collaborative lacked the data to back this up.
Teacher Champions, with support from the Collaborative, were participating in key education policy conversations playing out in their states. For example, in states with hot debates about the value of high learning standards, several Teacher Champions created “Bring Your Legislator to School” programs, inviting local and state policymakers into their classrooms and into teacher planning meetings to see how high-quality, standards-driven instruction provided for engaging learning opportunities and facilitated collaborative planning.
But neither the Collaborative nor the teachers knew exactly how to capture the impact of this work. With Teacher Champions tailoring their advocacy efforts across 17 states, the fellowship required flexible tools that could be adapted to the varied contexts and approaches. Essentially, they needed an East Coast/West Coast compromise inspired by Tupac and Biggie and anchored by Coffman, Teles, and Schmitt. Continue reading